A more extensive list of suggested further reading on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa
There is an immense and continually growing literature on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. We have listed here a number of the more interesting books for further reading on history and culture, travel, art and literature. We have not included articles, many of which are to be found in the publications of the triennial International Conferences of Ethiopian Studies (ICES): the most recent of these have been:
Marcus, H. G. (ed.), 1994 New Trends in Ethiopian Studies. Papers of the XII International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Michigan State University, 5–10 September 1994, 3 vols., Lawrenceville NJ.
Katsuyoshi Fukui, Eisei Kurimoto and Masayoshi Shigeta (eds.), 1997 Ethiopia in Broader Perspective. Papers of the XIIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Kyoto, 12–17 December 1997, Kyoto.
Baye Yimam (ed.), Proceedings of the XIVth. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa, 6– 11November 2000. Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies.
Uhlig, S. (ed.) 2006. Proceedings of the XVth. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies Hamburg July 20– 25, 2003. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Ege, S., Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra and Shiferaw Bekele (eds). Proceedings of the XV1th. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Trondheim, 2-7 July 2007. Proceedings can be accessed through http://portal.svt.ntnu.no/sites/ices16/default.aspx
The XVIIth. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies was held in November 2009 in Addis Ababa.
History and culture (general)
Asmerom Legesse 2006. Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System Trenton NJ: Red Sea Press.
Bahru Zewde, 1998 A Short History of Ethiopia and the Horn, Addis Ababa.
1991 A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1974. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Beckwith, C., Fisher, A. and Hancock, G. 1990 African Ark: People and Ancient Cultures of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Harry N. Abrams.
Bender, M. Lionel (ed.). 1981 Peoples and Cultures of the Ethio-Sudan Borderlands. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.
Berhanou Abebe, 1998 Histoire de l'Ethiopie d'Axoum a la revolution, Paris: Maison-neuve et Larose.
Crummey, Donald, 2000 Land and Society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dessalegn Rahmato. 1985 Agrarian Reform in Ethiopia. Trenton: Red Sea Press.
Doresse, Jean, 1971 Histoire Sommaire de la Corne Orientale de l'Afrique, Paris: Geuthner.
Henze, Paul, 2000 Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, Hurst, London.
Iyob, Ruth. 1995.The Eritrean Struggle For Independence: Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941-1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leroy, Jules. 1973 L'Ethiopie – Archeologie et Culture, Bruges: Deschede Brouwer.
Levine, Donald N. 2000 Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multi-Ethnic Society. 2nd. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1965 Wax and Gold: Tradition and Innovation in Ethiopian Culture. Chicago: University of
Lewis, I.M. 1955 Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho. (Ethnographic Survey of Africa: North Eastern Africa, Pt. 1.) London: International African Institute.
The New Constitution
Under the new constitution, thee elections for Ethiopia's first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May 1995. Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections as they did in 2000, in both cases giving the EPRDF a landslide victory. Opposition parties as a whole did finally participate in the 2005 election and the election produced a record number of voters, with 90% of the electorate turning out to cast their vote. The African Union report on the process commended the election for a "display of genuine commitment to democratic ideals ; the US Carter Center concluded that the majority of
the constituency results were credible and reflected competitive conditions; the US Department of State said the elections stood out as a milestone in creating a new, more competitive multi-party political system. The EU Observer Mission, however, uncritically accepting some opposition claims, suggested the election had fallen short of international standards, though it actually classified nearly ninety percent of the polling processes as good or very good. The final results showed opposition parties had increased their seats in Parliament from 12 to an impressive 176, and that they had won all but one of the seats for the Addis Ababa City Council. Despite this, the main opposition coalition refused to accept the results, claiming against all the evidence that it had won. It called for a boycott of parliament, and organized a series of street protests in Addis Ababa at the beginning of November. These rapidly turned violent, and nearly 200 people including 7 policemen died in three days of rioting. A subsequent judicial commission of enquiry deplored the deaths but cleared the police of using unnecessary force. Thousands of people were temporarily detained. A number of opposition political leaders were convicted of various offences and jailed, but pardoned two years later.
Before the next election, in 2010, most of the parties, determined to avoid another outbreak of violence, signed an Election Code of Conduct. The exception was the largest opposition coalition, the Forum for Democratic Dialogue (MEDREK), a coalition of eight parties which included most of the groups that boycotted Parliament in 2005. When it came to the vote, the electorate proved unimpressed by the opposition refusal to take up its seats in 2005, and equally disenchanted by MEDREK's failure to sign the Code of Conduct, by the opposition's lack of alternative policies, its failure to do more than criticize the EPRDF and the public bickering and quarrelling among its leaders prior to 2010. In sharp contrast, after 2005 the EPRDF had revitalized its structures, building up extensive Women's and Youth organizations and reorganizing itself through the country. It won an overwhelming majority in local elections in 2008 and used this as a springboard for the national and federal elections in 2010. By then it also had the added advantage of presiding over significant growth and development, in infrastructure, primary education and health, and of achieving double-digit growth for the whole period between 2005 and 2010. It was hardly surprising that the results were a landslide victory for the EPRDF, including a total reversal of the Addis Ababa results of 2005 - in 2010 it was the opposition which only won a single seat, although over 40% of the city did vote for opposition parties.
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