The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE):
The Federation is composed of Nine States (killil): Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Somali, Benishangul-Gumuz, Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR), Gambella and Harari Regional States; and two Chartered Cities - Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The national regional states and the two city administrative councils are further divided into eight hundred woredas (districts) and around 15,000 kebeles (neighborhoods, the lowest level of elected administration).
Ethiopia is a multi-party federal democracy with legislative authority resting with the government headed by an executive prime minister and the elected House of Representatives (547 members) and the House of Federation (110 members). The Prime Minister is chosen by the party in power following multi-party democratic national and federal state elections which are held every five years. Parties can be registered at either the national or the federal state level. The President is elected by the members of the House of People’s Representatives.
President: Girma Woldegiorghis
Prime Minister: Hailemariam Desalegn
Speaker of the House of People’s Representatives: Abadula Gemeda
Cabinet (November 2012):
1. Demeke Mekonnen, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education
2. Debretsion Gebremikael, with the rank of Deputy Prime Minister, Economy and Finance Cluster, and Minister of Communication and IT
3 Muktar Kedir, with the rank of Deputy Prime Minister, Coordinator of Good Governance and Reform Cluster, and Civil Service Minister
4. Dr. Tewodros Adhanom, Minister of Foreign Affairs
5. Siraj Fegesa, Minister of Defense
6. Dr. Shiferaw Tekelemariam, Minister of Federal Affairs
7. Berhane Hailu, Minister of Justice
8. Sufian Ahmed, Minister of Finance and Economic Development
9. Tefera Deribew, Minister of Agriculture
10. Mekonnen Manyazewal, Minister of Industry
11. Kebede Chane , Minister of Trade
12. Desse Dalke, Minister of Science and Technology
13. Diriba Kuma, Minister of Transport
14. Mekuria Haile, Minister of Urban Development and Construction
15. Alemayehu Tegenu, Minister of Water and Energy
16. Sinknesh Ejigu, Minister of Mines
17. Dr. kesetebirhan Admassu, Minister of Health
18. Abdulfetah Abdulahi , Minister of Labor and Social Affairs
19. Amin Abdulkadir, Minister of Culture and Tourism
20. Zenebu Tadesse, Minister of Women, Youth and Children’s Affairs
The last federal and national elections were held in 2010 and were won by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front. The regional states (killil) elect their own Regional State Councils chosen from among their members. The State Councils also designate members for the House of Federation.
EPRDF 137 APDO 1
EPRDF 137 APDO 1
EPRDF 122 PRIVATE 1
EPRDF 122 PRIVATE 1
EPRDF 22 FORUM 1
EPRDF 1 SPDP 1
EPRDF 1 SPDP 1
EPRDF 1 HNL 1
ANDP - Afar National Democratic Party; APDO - Argoba People Democratic Organization; BGPDP – Benishangul-Gumuz People’s Democratic Party; Forum - Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum (Medrek); GPUDM – Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement; HNL - Harari National League; SPDM –Somali People’s Democratic Movement. The EPRDF - the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Party, is a coalition of the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), the Oromo People’s Democratic Organization (OPDO), the Tigrai People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and the Southern Ethiopian Peoples’ Democratic Front (SEPDF).
The EPRDF won 499 of the 547 federal parliamentary seats, with 38 seats in Tigray, 137 in Amhara, 178 in Oromia, 122 in South Ethiopia Peoples State and 22 seats in Addis Ababa. Allied parties won 8 seats in Afar states, 9 seats in Benishangul Gumuz, 3 seats in Gambella State and 23 seats in Somali State. The EPRDF also won one seat in each of Harari state and the Dire Dawa City Administration. The opposition Forum won one seat in Addis Ababa; an independent candidate won a seat in the South Ethiopia Peoples State.
Addis Ababa, one of the two chartered cities in the Federation, is the seat of the Federal Government and is also the capital of the Oromia Regional State. It is the largest city in the country with a population of 2.7 million at the 2007 census (estimated at 3.2 million in 2011). It lies on the central plateau at an altitude of 2300-2400 meters, and with an average temperature of around 160C.
Addis Ababa, founded in 1887, is host to the African Union (AU) and to the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Several other international organizations have their head quarters and offices there. It the seat of the Federal Government, the House of Representatives and the House of Federation, as well as country’s center of commerce and industry.
Regional State Governments and Capitals:
Afar Regional State: Semera
Amhara Regional State: Bahr Dar
Benishangul Gumuz: Asossa
Gambella Regional State: Gambella
Harar State: Harar
Oromia Regional State: Finfine (Addis Ababa)
Somali Regional State: Jijiga
SNNP Regional State: Hawassa
Tigray Regional State: Makelle
Location and Boundaries
Ethiopia is located in the centre of the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with the Sudan and South Sudan to the west; Eritrea to the north and north-east; Djibouti and Somaliland to the east; Somalia and Kenya to the south.
It covers an area of 1.14 million square Kilometers (944,000 square miles)
The population according to the 2007 Census was 73,918,505. The growth rate is estimated at 3.2% and the current population estimate is now 86 million, of which 46% fall within the 1-14 age range; 51% between 15 and 64; and 3% are over 65. Approximately 17% of the population is estimated to live in urban areas.
Nation and Nationalities
Ethiopia is home to over 80 different peoples and nationalities. According to the 2007 census the larger ones are: Oromo 25.5 million (35%); Amhara 20 million (27%); Somali 4.6 million 6.2%); Tigrean 4.5 million (6.1%) Sidama 3 million (4%); Gurage 1.9 million (2.5%); Welayta 1.7 million (2.3%); Hadiya 1.3 million (1.7%); Afar 1.3 million (1.7%); Gamo 1.1 million (1.5%).
Christians make up 62.8% of the population (43.5% follow the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and 19.3 other denominations); Muslims 33.9%; traditional faiths 2.6%; and others 0.6%.
Although Ethiopia lies within 15 degrees North of the Equator, overall the country enjoys moderate temperatures and a pleasant climate, with average temperature rarely exceeding 200C (680F), owing to the moderating influence of high altitude. The more sparsely populated lowlands tend to have sub–tropical and tropical climates; and parts of the Afar regional State in the east of the country which lie below sea level are considered to be the hottest place on earth with temperatures regularly reaching 500C (1200F) or more.
At approximately 850mm (34inches), the average annual rainfall for the whole country is considered to be moderate by global standards. In most of the highland areas, rainfall occurs in two distinct seasons: the “small rains” (belg) during February and March and the “big rains” (kremt) from June to September. In the south east lowlands the rainy seasons are from March to May, the longer season (gu), and the short rainy season from October to December (deyr).
There are international airports at Addis Ababa (Bole International Airport), and at Dire Dawa, Bahr Dar, Gondar, Lalibela, Axum, Arba Minch, and Mekelle. The national carrier, Ethiopian Airlines, has an excellent international reputation and currently flies to 63 international destinations in America, Europe, Africa and Asia as well as 17 local flight destinations. It is now taking delivery of the latest Boeing 787 “Dreamliner” aircraft for its long haul flights.
The main entry points by road are at Moyale (from Kenya), Humera and Metema (from Sudan), Dewele (from Djibouti). All have full customs and immigration checks. Until Eritrea invaded Ethiopia in 1998, Humera, Rama, Zalembessa and Bure were entry points from Eritrea; in the absence of any effort by Eritrea to normalize relations, they remain closed.
All visitors to Ethiopia, except citizens of Kenya, require a visa to enter the country. These should be obtained in advance from an Ethiopian Embassy, though single entry, one to three month, tourist visas can be obtained at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa. For information about business visas or multiply entry tourist visas, contact a local Ethiopian Embassy which will provide the relevant forms. Visas issued by embassies are valid from the day of issue not from the date of arrival in Ethiopia.
Currency and Currency Regulations
The local currency is the Ethiopian birr, made up of 100 cents. Notes are issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 birr. There are six different coins: 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cents, and 1 birr.
The exchange rate as of 24th April 2012:
1 USD = 17.5 ETB
1 GBP = 28.1 ETB
1 Euro = 23.1 ETB
1 Renminbi – 2.8 ETB
There is no limit to the amount of foreign currency that can be imported into Ethiopia, but it must be declared on arrival, using a currency declaration form. Foreign currency may be changed only at authorized banks and hotels .The currency declaration form will be required by Customs on departure. Visitors may change back any excess birr into foreign currency at the air port before departure, but they are expected to produce receipts for all exchange transactions.
These can be used in some of the larger hotels in Addis Ababa, and major credit cards can be used for flights by Ethiopian Airlines. A number of banks and hotels have ATM machines available and Visa cards can be used at some banks. The US dollar is the best foreign currency to bring into Ethiopia and it can be exchanged at banks and foreign exchange bureaus.
Drivers require a valid International Driving License, which can be obtained by exchanging your own local license at the Transport and Communications office on Haile Gebreselassie Road in Addis Ababa. Visitors can recover their original driving licenses a day or so prior to departure. Those with their own vehicles require a permit from the Ministry of Transport and Communication. Driving is on the right hand side of the road.
Ethiopia uses a 220 Volt and 50 Hz. System. It is sensible to bring a round, two-prong adapter and transformer if necessary.
All visitors (including infants) are required to possess a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate if you have recently travelled to a country where it is present. Vaccination against cholera is also required for any person who has visited or been in transit through a cholera-infected area within six days prior to arrival to Ethiopia. Malaria is endemic in areas of Ethiopia below 2000 meters, and both chloroquine–resistant and falciparum strains are present.
Medical facilities are available in all major towns but facilities are often over-taxed. Tourists and non-citizen residents should go to private hospitals and clinics. Contact your Embassy for referral to recommended doctors. Air rescue services are available.
Calendar and time
Ethiopia uses its own calendar which divides the year into 12 months of 30 days each, with the remaining five (or six days in a leap year) constituting a short 13th month of Pagme. The Ethiopian New Year commences on the 11th or 12th of September in the Gregorian calendar.
There is a 7 or 8 year difference from the Gregorian calendar, seven years from September to January 1, and eight years from January 1 until September 10/11. The current Ethiopian year is 2004, running from September 12, 2011 to September 10, 2012. Meskerem 1, New Year’s Day 2005, will fall on September 11th 2012.
Gregorian dates 2011-2012 Meskerem
September 11 - October 10 Tekemt
October 11 – November 9 Hedar
November 10 – December 9 Tahsas
December 10 – January 8 Tir
January 9 – February 7 Yekatit
February 8 - March 9 Megabit
March 10 – April 9 Miyazya
April 10 - May 8 Ginbot
May 9– June 7 Sene
June 8 – July 7 Hamle
July 8 – August 6 Nehase
August 7 – September 5
Ethiopia is in the GMT +3 time zone. Business hours vary according to the nature of the business. Normally government offices and most other office hours are from 8:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and 1:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. from Monday through Thursday. Working hours on Friday are 8:30am to 11:30am and 1:30pm to 5:30pm.
Banks are open from 8:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. from Monday through Thursday. Working hours on Friday are 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. to 3: 00 p.m. and Saturday 8:30 to 11a.m.
Major holidays 2004 -2005 (European calendar 2011-2012)
Enkutatash (New Year’s Day 2004– September 12); Eid al Fitr - the end of Ramadan (variable); Meskel (the finding of the True Cross – September 28); Eid al Adha (November 7, 2011); Genna (Christmas – the birth of Christ – January 8); Timkat (Epiphany: baptism of Christ - January 20); Maulid (Birth of the Prophet Mohammed – February 5); Adwa Day (commemorating the victory over Italy in 1896 – March 2); Patriots' Day (celebrating the end of the five year Italian occupation in 1941 – April 6); Siklet (Good Friday – April 13); Tensai (Easter Sunday April 15); Downfall of the Derg (April 28); International Labour Day (May 1); Buhe (August 19); Enkutatash (New Year’s Day 2005 – September 11).1