A Week in the Horn 06.05.2022


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News in Brief





Ethiopia and European Union hold annual Political Consultation





Ethiopia’s Delegation to the US concluded visit with success in the bag





Ambassador Redwan Hussein confers with US Chargé d’Affaires Ambassador Tracey Jacobson





Ethiopia, Djibouti ink Memorandum of Understanding to develop oil storage facility in Djibouti





Africa and the African Union





The Chairperson of the AU Commission,
Moussa Faki Mahamat, has condemned in the strongest terms the terrorist
attack perpetrated by Al Shabaab militants against an African Union
Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS) base in the Middle Shabelle
region, southwest of Mogadishu, on Tuesday (May 03). The Chairperson
pays tribute to the Burundian peacekeepers who lost their lives helping
to bring peace and stability to Somalia. The Chairperson extends his
sincere condolences to the bereaved families, the Government, and the
people of the Republic of Burundi, and wishes a speedy recovery to the
wounded as a result of the attack.





In related news, the Executive Secretary
of IGAD expressed his deepest condolences to the families of the
peacekeepers, the Governments, and peoples of Burundi and Somalia. He
wished the injured a speedy recovery. Workneh says IGAD is confident
that these attacks will neither deter nor alter the determination of
IGAD and international partners to support the people of Somalia in
their search for lasting peace and stability.





The Peace and Security Council (PSC), of
the African Union on Wednesday (May 04) called on the Sudanese military
authorities to create an environment conducive to dialogue in the
country ahead of an intra-Sudanese process. In a statement dealing with
the unconstitutional change of government in Sudan, Burkina Faso, Chad,
Guinea, and Mali, the PSC welcomed the efforts by the tripartite
mechanism to hold an inter-Sudanese dialogue to restore the
constitutional order in the country and expressed its commitment to
support the process.





Ethiopia





Ethiopians have celebrated on Thursday (May 05) the 81st Patriots
Victory Day around the Victory Monument at Arat Kilo vicinity, in the
capital in the presence of President Sahle-Work, patriots, and various
segments of the community. Members of the diplomatic community and
several gusts have also attended the event held to commemorate gallantry
and sacrifices paid by the patriots to defend the sovereignty of the
nation.





Ethiopia and the European Union (EU) held their annual political
dialogue on Friday (May 06) in Addis Ababa as per Article 8 of the
Cotonou Partnership Agreement between the EU and African, Caribbean, and
the Pacific States. The two sides deliberated issues of mutual
interest, including humanitarian and accountability measures taken
concerning the conflict in northern Ethiopia and the EU-Ethiopia
relations considering various socio-economic matters. (See article)





Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Demeke Mekonnen, received
at his office on Friday (April 29) the World Food Program (WFP) Country
Representative to Ethiopia,  Claude Jibidar. The Deputy Prime Minister
and Foreign Minister appreciated the WFP’s continued humanitarian
assistance to people affected by manmade and natural disasters in
Ethiopia. He said the federal government is exerting efforts to support
the more than 20 million Ethiopians who suffer from conflict and
drought. Given the gravity of the situation, the Deputy Prime Minister
and Foreign Minister stressed the need for expedited emergency relief
support to affected Ethiopians from humanitarian partners like WFP.





The Ethiopian delegation, led by Finance Minister  Ahmed Shide,
travelled to the United States to attend the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and World Bank Spring Meetings in 2022 and engage in diplomatic
activities. The delegation participated in a number of bilateral and
multilateral consultations during their two-week stay in Washington, DC.
(See article)





State Minister Ambassador Redwan Hussein discussed on Wednesday (May
04) with the United States Chargé d’Affaires in Ethiopia, Ambassador
Tracey Jacobson, about current situations in Ethiopia. Ambassador Redwan
spoke in detail about the destructive acts of the TPLF, from igniting
the conflict to failing to reciprocate the various peace initiatives of
the government.  He said the military adventures of the TPLF in the
Amhara and Afar regions caused unspeakable destruction to life and
property. Thanking Ambassador Redwan for the briefing, Ambassador Tracey
Jacobson expressed her country’s commitment to providing all necessary
support to Ethiopia to help it peacefully solve its problems. (See article)





Ethiopia and South Sudan have inked MoU for joint power
infrastructure integration represented by their water and energy
ministers. The construction of the power infrastructure is to be carried
out in two phases; the first with 357 Km covers areas from Gambella Sub
Station to Malakal town of Sough Sudan, while the second stretch from
Dedesa-Tepi Sub Station to Medina Juba of South Sudan with 700 Km
length.





The European Union (EU) is ready to support Ethiopia’s National
Dialogue Commission to work resolutely and resolve the contentious issue
in a peaceful and lasting manner, the Head of the EU Delegation to
Ethiopia said on Thursday (May 05). Speaking to the media, the Head
Ambassador Ronald Kobia stated that the EU certainly committed to
helping Ethiopia to overcome the current challenges and conduct a
National Dialogue that will bring lasting peace. “I think overcoming the
current challenges is the interest of Europeans and the people of
Ethiopia and we are ready to support the National Dialogue Commission to
conduct a successful deliberation in an unwavering manner.”





A convoy carrying humanitarian aid arrived in the capital of the
restive Tigray region in northern Ethiopia this past weekend, the UN
reported on Thursday (May 05). The 27 trucks delivered nearly 1,000
metric tonnes of food and other essential items to the city of Mekelle,
UN Spokesperson Stéphane Dujarric told journalists in New York. This was
the fourth humanitarian convoy to reach Tigray since the transportation
of aid resumed at the beginning of April 2022.





An International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) convoy of 20
trucks containing vital humanitarian assistance including food, seeds,
water treatment materials, and medical supplies reached Mekele on
Saturday (April 30) with the support and cooperation of the parties to
the conflict. In related news, the WFP announced today (May 06) that a
convoy of 64 trucks was on the way to the Tigray region.





After a four-day visit to Ethiopia last week, UNICEF Executive
Director Catherine Russell called for a rapid scale-up of support to
prevent a humanitarian disaster due to the drought in Ethiopia and the
region. The director stressed that the effect of the drought in Ethiopia
is devastating, and said, “In the Somali region, one of the worst-hit
drought areas in the country, I met children and families who have
literally lost everything. Their livestock have died and as a result,
they have no source of income. They cannot feed their children and are
on the move in search of food and water. We need to reach these families
now before it is too late.”





Eritrea





Senior Eritrean delegation composed of  Osman Saleh, Minister of
Foreign Affairs and Presidential Adviser  Yemane Gebreab met on Thursday
(May 05) with President Salva Kiir Mayardit of South Sudan in Juba and
delivered a message from President Isaias Afwerki. In his message,
President Isaias reaffirmed the historic bonds of solidarity between the
peoples of Eritrea and South Sudan since the days of struggle of the
people of South Sudan for self-determination. President Isaias also
stressed Eritrea’s resolute support for the independence and sovereignty
of South Sudan and its right to address its internal matters free from
external diktat. President Salva Kiir thanked Eritrea for its unwavering
constructive position and briefed the delegation on developments in the
country. President Salva Kiir stated that South Sudan was making
progress towards peace, stability, and development despite acute
difficulties.





Eritrea dismissed reports that its initiative to end political strife
in neighboring Sudan was backed by Gulf countries (May 2, 2022). A
newsletter on African affairs reported last week that Saudi Arabia and
the UAE are seriously concerned about the return of Sudan’s Islamists to
power after the coup of General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan last October. In
response to the report, Yemane Meskel Eritrea’s Minister of Information
in a tweet rejected the report, clarifying “First off, it is not in
Eritrea’s DNA to undertake diplomatic tasks under the bidding of others.
Secondly, periodic consultation with Sudan on issues of mutual concern
is a norm,” he stressed. The reports were stating that the two
countries, in an attempt to ward off the Islamist threat, decided to
back the efforts of Eritrea.





Djibouti





Ethiopia and Djibouti on Wednesday (May 04) signed a deal to explore
joint opportunities for the development of an oil storage facility in
Djibouti Damerjog Industrial Park (DDIDFZE). The MOU intends to foster a
conducive environment for future joint development of oil storage
terminals. (See article)





The Inauguration ceremony of the former Ethiopian Chancery building
renovation project in Djibouti was held on Thursday (May 05) in the
presence of government officials and members of the diplomatic
community. Ambassador of Ethiopia to Djibouti, Birhanu Tsegaye, the
Finance Minister, Ahmed Shide, the Foreign Affairs State Minister,
Birtukan Ayano, and Djiboutian officials attended the inauguration
ceremony.





Kenya





U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Affairs, Dr.
Celeste Wallander met with Kenya Cabinet Secretary of Defence Eugene
Wamalwa and Kenya Chief of Defence General Robert Kibochi in the United
States – Kenya Bilateral Defense Forum announced on Wednesday (May 4).
The talks reaffirmed the two countries’ commitment to strengthening
bilateral defense cooperation between the U.S. Department of Defense and
the Kenya Ministry of Defence and the Kenya Defence Forces. The two
sides discussed a range of topics including regional security;
cybersecurity; security cooperation; U.S. Africa Command mission;
Massachusetts National Guard accomplishments and plans; and climate
change.





The meeting of the Ethiopia-Kenya Joint Technical Boundary Committee
(JTBC) opened in Nairobi, Kenya on Wednesday (4 May 2022). In its
two-day deliberation, the Joint Technical meeting reviewed the 2019
Mombasa Report (JTBC) on the inspection and maintenance work, discussed
the security situation and sensitization along the border area between
Ethiopia and Kenya, reviewed the budget and work plan, and finally
deliberated on the experience from Kenya- Tanzania Border Inspection and
Maintenance Work. The boundary treaty between Ethiopia and Kenya was
signed in 1970.





Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Ethiopia in Kenya,
Meles Alem paid a courtesy call on the President of Kenya, Uhuru Muigai
Kenyatta on Thursday (May 05). The President appreciated Ambassador
Meles Alem for his outstanding diplomatic service that contributed a lot
to further cementing the longstanding relationships between the two
countries. He said the diplomatic, economic, and people-to-people
relations, as well as various regional integration projects, have taken
roots during Ambassador Meles’ tenure in Kenya. As a genuine friend,
Kenya will always stand by Ethiopia in times of need, the President
said, adding his country’s commitment to cementing ties between the two
countries. Ambassador Meles, on his part, thanked the people and
government of Kenya for their heartfelt hospitality rendered to him
during his three-year stay in Kenya.





Somalia





Somalia will hold its presidential elections on May 15, announced the
parliamentary committee that is organizing the vote on Thursday (May
5). The two Chambers, the lawmakers who were sworn in for a 275-member
lower house of parliament and a 54-seat upper house will jointly vote
for the new president, who will lead the country for the next four
years. Dozens of candidates including incumbent Mohamed Abdullahi
Mohamed, Former Prime Minister Hassan Ali Khaire, and the leader of
Somalia’s oil-rich Puntland region, Said Abdullahi Dani, are running for
president.





The armed group al-Shabab attacked on Tuesday (May 03) an African
Union mission troop camp in the Shabelle region in central Somalia, it’s
reported. A senior Burundian officer told the media at least 30 were
killed and another 22 were badly wounded during the attack. Initially,
authorities in Burundi announced 10 killed and dozens injured. Al-Shabab
announced over 173 soldiers were killed. It was the first time the
terrorist group raided the AU base since the mission changed its name
from AMISOM to ATMIS. IGAD, AU, Turkey, Qatar, US, UK, and UN strongly
condemn the terrorist attack.





South Sudan





South Sudan on Friday (April 29) lauded an initiative by the UN
Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) to bring together the rival
local communities in the disputed border area. The UNISFA Force
Commander and Acting Head of Mission, Maj Gen Benjamin Olufemi Sawyerr,
is preparing to convene a conference for the traditional leaders of the
Ngok Dinka and Misseriya tribes. The purpose of the meeting, which will
take place in Entebbe Uganda on 16-19 May, is to revitalize the local
peace process between traditional local leaders.





Ethiopia has agreed with South Soudan to export 100 MW of electric
power to South Sudan over the next three years, quadrupling the target
gradually, according to the Ethiopian Electric Power. This was disclosed
during the visit of the South Sudanese delegation, led by Energy and
Dam Minister, Peter Marcello, to the National Grid Control Center in
Addis Ababa on Thursday (May 05).





Sudan





South Sudan’s Vice President for Service Cluster, Hussein Abdelbagi
Akol on Monday (May 02) revealed plans to reopen the cross-border
corridor between Sudan and South Sudan in a bid to boost trade (May 2,
2022). “We want Sudan to open the border for the citizens of the two
countries to move freely with their goods and services,” Abdelbagi said
during the celebration of Eid Al-Adha in Juba.





A Joint envoy visits Sudan on Monday (30 April 2022). Senior
officials from France, Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United
States of America, and the European Union have concluded a joint visit
to Khartoum to show support for the people of Sudan and a civilian-led
transition toward Democracy. They called for immediate progress towards a
civilian transitional government, agreed through the Sudanese-led
political process being facilitated by the United Nations Integrated
Transition Assistance Mission to Sudan (UNITAMS), the African Union
(AU), and the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD). In
this respect, they welcomed the facilitators’ announcement that they
would convene a meeting to this end on 10-12 May.





*******************





Ethiopia and European Union hold annual Political Consultation





Ethiopia and the European Union (EU) held their annual political
dialogue today (May 06) in Addis Ababa as per Article 8 of the Cotonou
Partnership Agreement between the EU and African, Caribbean, and the
Pacific States.





The two sides deliberated issues of mutual interest, including
humanitarian and accountability measures taken concerning the conflict
in northern Ethiopia and the EU-Ethiopia relations, taking various
socio-economic matters into consideration.





Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Demeke Mekonnen led the
Ethiopian delegation and the EU Ambassador to Ethiopia, Roland Kobia
chaired the meeting representing the EU side.





In his opening remarks, Demeke presented an overview of the various
confidence-building measures that the Government of Ethiopia has been
undertaking to end the conflict in the north and ensure lasting peace in
the country.





He mentioned, among others, the declaration of the humanitarian truce
which paved unimpeded access to humanitarian support, the support of
the peace initiatives of Olusegun Obasanjo as High Representative for
the Horn of Africa, and the proposed all-inclusive national dialogue.





As part of the Ethiopian delegation, the Minister of Justice, Dr.
Gedion Timotheos spoke on accountability measures taken by the
government to address concerns over human rights abuses, including
extrajudicial killings and Gender-based violations committed by all
parties during the conflict in the north.





In this regard, he walked the audience through the formation of the
inter-ministerial task force to investigate atrocities, the UN-EHRC
joint investigation and efforts made to implement the recommendations,
as well as the ongoing and scheduled prosecution of the perpetrators.





Commissioner for the National Disaster Risk Management Commission of
Ethiopia,  Mitiku Kassa explained the steps taken so far to ensure
unimpeded humanitarian support to the Tigray region citing improved
procedures related to visa issuance, reduction of checkpoints, and
increment in the amount of cash humanitarian operators are allowed to
carry while operating in the region, among others.





Thanking humanitarian partners for the support they rendered to the
drought and conflict-affected people in Ethiopia, he stressed the need
to expand the support base in many parts of the country, including
Amhara and Afar, and give proper attention to long-term development and
rehabilitation efforts.





Speaking at the event, the European Union Ambassador to Ethiopia,
Roland Kobia said the dialogue is timely for both parties given the
challenging situations they have faced now, mentioning the conflict and
drought in Ethiopia and the Russia-Ukraine conflict in Europe.





Discussing the Russia and Ukraine issue, diplomats of the European
Union stressed the violation of the UN charter due to the actions of
Russia, while the Ethiopian side reiterated the country’s position,
which calls upon both Russia and Ukraine to peacefully solve their
problem through negotiation.





Aside from humanitarian issues and accountability measures for
alleged human rights violations, the dialogue also covered situations
about the business landscape in Ethiopia from the perspective of
European investors stressing predictability and peace for building a
thriving economy.





The representatives of the European Union also appreciated the
peacebuilding measures of the government of Ethiopia and its commitments
to come up with amicable solutions to the border conflict between
Ethiopia and Sudan and the trilateral negotiations over the GERD.





Both parties appreciated the opportunity that the Political Dialogue
offered them to genuinely reflect on pivotal issues of common interest
exchanging wishes to meet in the next round with pledges to strengthen
the strategic partnership between the two sides.





*******************





Ethiopia’s Delegation to the US concluded visit with success in the bag





The Ethiopian delegation, led by Finance Minister Ahmed Shide,
traveled to the United States to attend the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and World Bank Spring Meetings in 2022 and engage in diplomatic
activities. The delegation participated in a number of bilateral and
multilateral consultations during their two-week stay in Washington, DC.





The main summit, which took place from April 18 to 24, was attended
by the leaders of the two global financial organizations as well as
delegates from countries all around the world. The economic consortium
addressed the global debt crisis, which has worsened as a result of
unequal post-pandemic recovery, as well as the global economic
turbulence caused by the conflict in Ukraine. In summary, the meeting
was convened as a result of a slew of crises colliding.





The Meeting and sideline engagements





The Ethiopian delegation actively participated in the debt reform and
restructuring talks. The World Bank issued crisis packages at the end
of the meeting, which combine international finance with the Green,
Resilient, and Inclusive Development approach, with implementation set
for late 2022. More extra foreign exchange reserve assets known as
special drawing rights are likely to be used by the IMF (SDRs). The
Forum’s new Resilience and Sustainability Trust will seek $45 billion in
funding for this project.





Minister of Finance Ahmed Shide and his delegation met with IMF
managing director  Kristalina Georgieva on the sidelines and had
fruitful discussions. The two sides talked on Ethiopia’s economy’s
resilience in the face of repeated shocks, ongoing economic reforms, and
working with the fund to develop Ethiopia’s economy and address
difficulties. The meeting also emphasized the importance of completing
the G-20 common framework as soon as possible and mobilizing resources
to promote reforms.





Finance Minister Ahmed Shide met with World Bank Country Director
Ousmane Dione on April 21, 2022, to address a variety of concerns,
including the impact of present challenges, growth, and World Bank
assistance.





The Minister and Country Director also addressed the status of
reforms, the Bank’s portfolio performance, and ways to expand World
Bank-Ethiopia cooperation. Minister Ahmed also thanked the World Bank
for its recent assistance with the Response-Recovery-Resilience for
Conflict-Affected Communities Project.





The Country Director, for his part, has underlined his commitment to
pipeline projects, which are eager to assist the government in
maintaining a sustained focus on medium-term development priorities.





Diplomatic engagements with US





Ahmed Shide and his delegation have met with important US government
departments such as the US Treasury, USAID, the Special Envoy for the
Horn of Africa, and others to discuss their concerns. The diplomatic
move aims at restoring the historic, strategic, and crucial Ethio-US
relationship, which has been harmed by misinformation.





The delegations met with USAID Administrator Samantha Power to
discuss strategic cooperation between the two nations as well as
Ethiopia’s current political and economic developments.  Ahmed stated
that Ethiopia is dealing with a number of issues, including the
conflict, the recent drought in the Horn of Africa, and the impact of
the current global trend of rising commodity prices on Ethiopia’s food
security.





The Minister emphasized the Ethiopian government’s main goals, which
include preserving Ethiopia’s unity, territorial integrity, and
sovereignty, addressing the dire humanitarian needs of those affected by
the conflict, and healing the divisions and wounds within Ethiopia’s
social and political landscape in order to pave the way for peace and
reconciliation.





The Minister highlighted the conflict’s huge overall effects on
Ethiopia, especially the major humanitarian situation, as well as the
government’s commitment to a cease-fire as a courageous move toward
reconciliation and long-term peace. The meeting provided an update on
key government actions, including the government’s declaration of an
indefinite humanitarian cease-fire to remove any barriers to
humanitarian operations and to allow for easy movement of humanitarian
personnel to meet the full range of humanitarian needs of affected
populations in the Amhara, Afar, and Tigray regions.





The Minister also updated the meeting on the Inter-Ministerial
Taskforce established to implement the recommendations of the UNOHCHR
and the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission Joint Investigation, as well
as the progress made thus far. The government recognizes the need to
step up efforts to compensate victims, enforce accountability, and
prevent recurrence.





The group also examined how to address food insecurity issues caused
by the catastrophic drought in the Horn of Africa, as well as rising
global commodity prices.





For her part, the USAID administrator welcomed recent progress in
expanding humanitarian access in northern Ethiopia. She also emphasized
the importance of continuing efforts to ensure the unhindered and
long-term supply of humanitarian aid, as well as substantial support for
the reconstruction of crucial infrastructure and the restoration of
important services in northern Ethiopia.





The administration also reaffirmed the US government’s continued
support for Ethiopians working to achieve long-term peace. She also
mentioned that USAID has committed more funds to a regional drought
response initiative that will begin in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia.





The Minister also met with Molly Phee, the US Assistant Secretary of
State for African Affairs, for a productive meeting. The meeting focused
on the long-standing bilateral relations between Ethiopia and the
United States, including strategies to expand essential economic and
commercial collaboration, positive progress toward peace, and the
necessity for ongoing humanitarian aid delivery in northern Ethiopia.





Citizen Centered Diplomacy





During his visit to Iftar (Ramadan dinner) program hosted by Ethiopian Diaspora in Washington, DC, the Minister highlighted that the Eid to Eid Homecoming program would have immense economic importance apart from its religious value.





“There is no doubt that Ethiopia will triumph through the combined
efforts of all Ethiopians. As a Muslim Committee, you are taking
positive actions that may lead to the nation’s rescue. As a result, we’d
want to express our gratitude for your efforts” he said.





 Ahmed also encouraged the Diaspora to continue supporting their homeland with such incentives.





*******************





Ambassador Redwan Hussein confers with US Chargé d’Affaires Ambassador Tracey Jacobson





State Minister Ambassador Redwan Hussein discussed on Wednesday (May
04) with the United States Chargé d’Affaires in Ethiopia, Ambassador
Tracey Jacobson, about current situations in Ethiopia.





Ambassador Redwan spoke in detail about the destructive acts of the
TPLF, from igniting the conflict to failing to reciprocate the various
peace initiatives of the government. He said the military adventures of
the TPLF in the Amhara and Afar regions caused unspeakable destruction
on life and property. The ambassador also explained the efforts of the
Ethiopian government in providing humanitarian support to the Tigray
region and creating unimpeded humanitarian access for partners.





Speaking on the alleged humanitarian abuse in the Tigray region,
Ambassador Redwan reiterated the investigations run by pertinent bodies
in the government, including the joint UN-EHRC investigation. He said
the international community underappreciated both the government-led and
the joint investigations in Tigray while downplaying the atrocities
committed by the TPLF in Amhara and Afar. He said the international
community should tell the TPLF to evacuate its troops from the areas it
occupied in adjacent regional states without conditions, further
reaffirming his country’s readiness to work closely with impartial
bodies that are genuinely interested to take concerns of the government
into consideration.





Thanking Ambassador Redwan for the briefing, Ambassador Tracey
Jacobson expressed her country’s commitment to providing all necessary
support to Ethiopia to help it solve its problems in a peaceful manner.
She said she would work hard to revitalize the relationship between the
two countries, further pledging that the United States would scale up
humanitarian support to Ethiopia.





Ethiopia, Djibouti ink Memorandum of Understanding to develop oil storage facility in Djibouti





Ethiopia and Djibouti signed Memorandum of Understanding to explore
joint opportunities for the development of oil storage facility in
Djibouti’s Damerjog Industrial Park on May 4, 2022 in Djibouti.





The MoU was signed by  Mamo Merhertu, Chief Executive Officer of
Ethiopian Investment Holdings, and  Aboubaker Omar Hadi, Chairman of
Djibouti Ports and Free zones Authority and Great Horn Investment
Holding.





The MoU intends to create conducive environment for future joint
development of oil storage terminal in Djibouti which will ultimately
take the existing well-founded strong economic ties between the two
sisterly countries to a higher level.





To this end, it envisages several collaborative mechanisms to set up
an oil storage facility in Damerjog to provide storage services to
petroleum products destined for the gateway demand of both Djibouti’s
and Ethiopia’s markets as well as Transshipment.





The signature of the MOU was attended by Ambassador Birtukan Ayano,
State Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia and Berhanu Tsegaye,
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the FDRE to the Republic
of Djibouti.





During the signing ceremony of the document, the high-level officials
of both countries underscored that the new initiative is critically
important to ensure a sustainable oil supply to Ethiopia’s oil demand
which roughly increases by 10 percent every year.




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