A Week in the Horn 01.04.2022


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News in Brief





S.3199: Aiming for the Wrong Targets





Humanitarian aid to Tigray: it takes two to tango





Ethiopia has begun repatriating citizens from Saudi Arabia





Peace and Security: the new arena for China-Horn cooperation





Ethiopia participates in the 8th TICAD Ministerial Meeting





Africa and the African Union





The Executive Secretary of the
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) on Friday (March 25)
welcomed the decision of the Government of Ethiopia to declare an
indefinite humanitarian ceasefire and the reciprocal announcement by the
regional government of Tigray, according to a statement issued by the
authority. IGAD Executive Secretary Workneh Gebeyehu welcomed the
decision of the Government of Ethiopia to declare an indefinite
humanitarian ceasefire that is intended to enhance humanitarian access
to those in need in the Tigray region.





A pre-ministerial meeting for validation
of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Blue Economy
Strategy was held on Wednesday (March 30) in Addis Ababa.  Head of the
IGAD’s Environmental Protection and Blue Economy Program, Eshete Dejene
said on the occasion that a key element in the blue economy approach is
to recognize the value of oceans, lakes, and other water bodies in the
national economic and social development context. According to the head,
a strategy is being formulated to develop the sector in a sustainable
and collaborative manner.





Ethiopia





Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed on Monday (March
28) held a meeting with President Ismail Omar Guelleh and his
delegation to discuss bilateral and regional issues. It is to be
recalled that Djibouti’s President Ismail Omar Guelleh had arrived in
Addis Ababa for an official visit. Upon his arrival at Bole
International Airport, the President was welcomed by Prime Minister Abiy
Ahmed and higher government officials.





A
delegation led by Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Demeke
Mekonnen attended the 20th Doha Forum in Qatar which was held under the
theme: “Transforming for a New Era”. The two-day forum draws high-level
government officials and CEOs and is deliberating critical global and
regional developments providing clear directional and actionable
recommendations.





The Government of Brazil awarded on Tuesday (March 26) the Order of
Rio Branco (Ordem de Rio Branco) to Ethiopian Airlines for the
spectacular service the Airlines rendered to Brazil during the high-time
of the Coronavirus Pandemic. Tewolde GebreMariam, former CEO of
Ethiopian Airlines receives the highest order medal. The director of
operations for Ethiopian Airlines for Brazil and South America,  Girum
Abebe, and two other staff members of the Airlines also received medals.
The Order of Rio Branco is bestowed annually to people who provide
meritorious service to Brazil.





State Minister of the Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia, Ambassador Redwan
Hussien, has participated in the 8th Ministerial meeting of the Tokyo
International Conference on African Development (TICAD). The two-day
online Ministerial meeting was chaired by  HAYASHI Yoshimasa, Minister
for Foreign Affairs of Japan. (See article)





Ethiopia has begun repatriating Ethiopian citizens from the Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia on Wednesday (March 30). It is estimated that there are
about 750,000 Ethiopians living in Saudi Arabia. Of these, 450,000 are
reported to have entered illegally. At least 102,000 Ethiopian detainees
are currently being held in various detention centers across the
country. (See article)





The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee has passed the S.3199-
Ethiopia Peace and Democracy Promotion Act of 2021-to be voted by the
Senate. The bill was introduced in the first session of the 117 Congress
by U.S. Senator, Robert Menendez on 04 November 2021. In whatever fancy
name the bills were introduced, it would be the ordinary people who pay
the ultimate price than enjoying the peace and stabilization promises
that the bills entail ensuring in Ethiopia. (See article)





During a visit to Eritrea a month ago, China’s Foreign Minister Wang
Yi announced the surprising news that Beijing would assign a new peace
and security envoy exclusively for the Horn of Africa (HOA). The
announcement was framed as “Initiative of Peaceful Development in the
Horn of Africa,” according to Wang. What will the proposed Peae
Conference and the Special Envoy expect in the process? (See article)





It is to be recalled that the Government of Ethiopia declared a
humanitarian truce last week to meet the humanitarian aid demands of
Ethiopians in the Tigray region. Governments, international
organizations, and humanitarian operators lauded the humanitarian truce
further calling on the TPLF to reciprocate. However, new allegations by
the TPLF and its sympathizers, including the WHO Director General’s
comments, on the government’s obstruction of the humanitarian supply to
Tigray are untimely and unhelpful. (See article)





A high-level delegation of Ethiopia led by Honorable Tagesse Chaffo,
Speaker of the House of the FDRE, has taken part at the 60th
parliamentary Assembly of the Organization of African, Caribbean and
Pacific States (OACPS) that was officially launched on Thursday (March
31) in Strasbourg, France. The OACPS Assembly had kicked off its meeting
by deliberating on the outcomes of the various committee meetings that
dwelt on the status of peace and security issues in the region, ways and
means to collaborate in managing the adverse impacts of the COVID
pandemic, and strengthening the stature of the OACPS to make it fit for
purpose to the current global reality.





Ethiopian Investment Commission held an investment forum under the
title, “Strengthening Bilateral Investment Partnership with India” on
Monday (March 28) in Mumbai in collaboration with the Ethiopian Embassy
in India. A delegation led by  Daniel Teressa, Deputy Commissioner of
Ethiopian Investment Commission, and Ambassador Tizita Mulugeta,
Ambassador of Ethiopia to India.





Embassy of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in Ankara,
Turkey held a trade and investment forum in Ankara in collaboration with
the Industrialist Businesswomen and Businessmen Confederation (SANKON)
on Monday (March 28). Ambassador Adem Mohamed in his opening speech
acknowledged Turkish investors as the second-largest investors in
Ethiopia, engaging in different sectors, creating job opportunities for
thousands, and exploring the vast opportunities.





The European Union and African Union Commission on Friday (March 25)
welcome the Declaration of an indefinite Humanitarian Truce by the
Government of Ethiopia in an effort to expedite the provision of
much-needed humanitarian aid to people in need in the Tigray region. In
related news, the governments of France, Turkey, the United States, and
the U.K. have welcomed the humanitarian truce.





Djibouti





Ethio-Djibouti Fruits and Vegetables Forum was held in Addis Ababa on
March 25-27, 2022, and dozens of Ethiopian Fruits & Vegetable
Exporters have agreed to supply more than 20 types of high-quality
products to major Djiboutian markets, both high-end and the mass
markets. The Business 2 Business Session, organized by the Ethiopian
Horticulture Producer Exporters Association, served as an important
platform for assessing gaps and developing improved mechanisms to
enhance fruit and vegetable exports to Djibouti.





Kenya





Chief of Ethiopian Defense Forces, Field marshal Birhanu Jula on
Wednesday (March 30) met with General Robert Kariuki Kibochi, the Chief
of the Kenya Defence Forces. They have agreed to strengthen cooperation
in bilateral and regional security issues, including hosting
capacity-building training sessions and sharing experiences in
peacekeeping. The two sides noted the need to exploit opportunities for
cooperation and cement longstanding ties between the two countries. They
further pledged to empower East Africa Standby Force (ESAF) as member
states. General Kiboch also expressed his delight to host Field Marshal
Birhanu in Kenya.





The Chief of Ethiopian Defense Forces and Chairman of the Committee
comprising Chiefs of the Defense Forces of East African countries, Field
Marshal Birhanu Jula said the East Africa Standby Force should made
preparation fitting the current security issues in the region. Field
Marshal Birhanu said this yesterday while making remarks at the
conclusion of the 15-day training given to officers of member states in
Kenya. He also appreciated member states for sending trainees to the
session as a manifestation of their commitment to strengthen the Standby
Force.





Somalia





The UN Security Council on Thursday (March 31) voted unanimously for a
new African Union peacekeeping force in Somalia, where Al-Shabaab
insurgents have been seeking to overthrow the fragile government for
more than a decade. The current African Union Mission in Somalia
(Amisom) is composed of 20,000 soldiers, police, and civilians helping
local authorities fight against the jihadist insurgents.





Sudan





The President of the Transitional Sovereignty Council, General Abdel
Al-Fattah Al-Burhan, and the Chadian President, Mohammed Idriss Deby, on
Thursday(March 31) held joint talks covering the bilateral relations
and means for developing them further for the interest of the peoples of
the two countries. The TSC President said in press statements that he
briefed President Deby on the developments of the situation in Sudan.





The President of Egypt, Abdul-Fattah Al-Sisi, received on Wednesday
(March 30) at Al-Ittihadiya Palace the President of the Sudanese
Transitional Sovereignty Council, Gen. Abdul-Fattah Al-Burhan, where the
official reception ceremony was held and the two national anthems were
played and the guards of honor was inspected. A sitting of talks was
held between the two presidents alone, followed by an expanded sitting
that included the delegations of the two countries.





South Sudan





Ethiopia’s Ambassador in South Sudan, Ambassador Nebil Mehdi, had a
meeting today with the Vice President of South Sudan in charge of
Infrastructure, Taban Deng Gai. The two sides discussed ways to cement
ties in the infrastructure sector, mentioning, in particular, the road
project that links the Gambella regional state of Ethiopia and the Upper
Nile State of South Sudan. This project is designed to link the two
countries with the port of Djibouti. They noted the need to scale up
cooperation and finalize the project.





Deputy Chief of Ethiopian Defense Forces, General Abebaw Tadesse met
with his South Sudanese counterpart, Lt.Gen.Thoi Chany Reath. The
Ethiopian delegation and the South Sudanese side agreed to share
experience in logistics and capacity-building and cooperate on border
security issues.





*******************





S.3199: Aiming for the Wrong Targets





Ever since the northern Ethiopia conflict broke out in late 2020,
some U.S. Senators and TPLF sympathizers have been calling for the
imposition of sanctions on Ethiopia. In whatever fancy name the bills
were introduced, it would be the ordinary people who will pay the
ultimate price, rather than enjoying the peace and stabilization
promises that the bills entail to ensure in Ethiopia. Sanctions will not
resolve Ethiopia’s conflict, except to worsen the economic hardship of
ordinary people. The removal of Ethiopia’s preferential benefits from
AGOA is a case in point here.





On March 17/2022, US Senator Bob Menendez, Chairman of the Senate
Foreign Relations Committee, called on President Joe Biden to assess
whether parties to the conflict in Ethiopia are guilty of war crimes,
crimes against humanity, or genocide. Citing evidence and reports of
extra-judicial killings, massacres, sexual and gender-based violence,
forced displacement, and continued efforts to block humanitarian aid
from reaching civilians, Menendez underlined the need for the Department
of State to make a decision on what he calls a “systematic campaign of
destruction,” further urging the Biden administration to continue to
impose a tsunami of sanctions that will pressure the Ethiopian
government.





Menendez has been calling attention to the problem in the Tigray
region ostensibly downplaying the TPLF rebels’ brutal aggression in the
Amhara and Afar regions that engendered the loss of lives and
displacement and destruction of infrastructure. In a letter addressed to
Biden, (https://www.foreign.senate.gov/download/2022-03-17-22-rm-letter-to-president-biden-re-ethiopia-conflict
), he implores the President for imposing additional sanctions on
Ethiopia, listing ‘positive’ outcomes previously imposed sanctions and
visa restrictions have had on Ethiopia. The Senator’s assessment is
flawed since it bypassed the negative effects of those sanctions on
ordinary Ethiopian citizens and completely ignored all the positive
initiatives taken by the Ethiopian government to ensure peace in the
country. Above all the Senator seems to fall into the trap of the TPLF
sympathizers who were playing the genocide card from the first day of
the TPLF militants’ unwarranted attack on Ethiopian Defense Forces’
Garrisons in Tigray. They are the ones who ethnically profiled and
attacked members of the Ethiopian Defense Forces, including civilians in
Mai Kadra at the outbreak of the conflict.  Now, Senator Bob Menendez
is at the forefront in proposing S.3.199 to put restraints on the
atrocious acts perpetrated by ‘all warring parties’ in Ethiopia.





Last Week, after introducing the bill to the Senate committee on
foreign relations, S.3199, Menendez said, “I am proud to be joined by my
colleagues in introducing the Ethiopia Peace and Democracy Promotion
Act of 2021 to enhance our nation’s efforts to pursue meaningful
accountability for the bloodshed and tragedy in Tigray”. To put the
records straight here, the tragedy and the bloodshed amount more in the
neighboring Amhara and Afar regions than the Tigray region. It is
baffling to see the senator’s undivided attention on the Tigray region
as if other areas, particularly the Amhara and Afar regions, are immune
to the atrocities of the TPLF.





Setting aside the seemingly biased position of Senator Menendez,
there are several reasons to reject and criticize the fundamental
premises of the Senate-drafted resolution S.3199. It specifically
overlooks the Tigray People’s Liberation Front’s (TPLF) initial assault
on an Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) base on the late evening
of November 3, 2020, which sparked the ongoing conflict. Subjecting the
victim to the proposed sanctions on arms transactions not only defies
the right of the state for self-defense but it amounts to rewarding the
clique for compromising the sovereignty of the nation.  The bill also
disregards the TPLF’s refusal to reciprocate the Ethiopian government’s
declaration of a unilateral humanitarian ceasefire in June 2021. Not
mentioning the causes of death and suffering in the Amhara and Afar
regions, the bill seems to overlook the responsibility of the TPLF
militants in launching fresh attacks in the adjacent regions further
obstructing the flow of humanitarian aid to Tigray.  Neither Ethiopia’s
genuine efforts to apply the recommendations of the joint investigation
of the United Nations Human Right Council (UNHRC) and the Ethiopian
Human Right Council (EHRC) get acknowledgments nor did the TPLF’s
rejection of the findings get rebukes. 





Despite the TPLF’s continuous belligerence, the Ethiopia government
has taken significant actions in the past four months towards ending the
conflict and bringing peace to Ethiopia, such as the declaration of the
ceasefire and humanitarian truce, the lifting of the State of
Emergency, the release of prominent opposition figures from prison, and
the proposed all-inclusive national dialogue that aims to address
critical national issues.  These steps have been acknowledged by the
international community, including the African Union (AU), the European
Union (EU), and United Nations (UN). António Guterres, the United
Nations Secretary-General (UNSG), affirmed this in his statement on
January 19, 2022, “I am delighted that after over a year of armed
conflict which has affected millions of people across Ethiopia and the
rest of the region, there is now a demonstrable effort to make peace.”
Additionally, after his recent visit to Ethiopia on March 22, 2022, the
US special envoy for the Horn of Africa, Ambassador Satterfield, said
the United States “appreciated and acknowledged the positive steps taken
by the Ethiopian government to pacify and stabilize the country.”





What the government of Ethiopia and its people need now is
appreciation and encouragement for choosing to walk on the right track
than debilitating blows from uncalled-for sanctions. The government of
Ethiopia is keen to work closely with the United States government on
issues that advance common interests. The Biden administration would
benefit the people of Ethiopia and put restraints on the undesirable
actions of the ‘warring parties’ by assisting the Ethiopian government’s
efforts to ensure peace and democracy in the country and the Horn of
Africa.





*******************





Humanitarian aid to Tigray: it takes two to tango





It is to be recalled that the Government of Ethiopia declared a
humanitarian truce last week to meet the humanitarian aid demands of
Ethiopians in the Tigray region. Governments, international
organizations, and humanitarian operators lauded the humanitarian truce
further calling on the TPLF to reciprocate. However, new allegations by
the TPLF and its sympathizers, including the WHO Director General’s
comments, on the government’s obstruction of the humanitarian supply to
Tigray are untimely and unhelpful. 





The Tigray militants should be courageous enough to bear
responsibility for the problems humanitarian operators are facing to
supply aid to those in need in the region. Commenting on delayed
humanitarian supply to the Tigray region after the declaration of the
Humanitarian truce,  the Government Communication service said the
Ethiopian government has taken immediate actions, expected of its side
in this regard, unless there was a lack of capacity or a delay in the
operation of the charities. Respecting the pledges made under the
humanitarian truce, the government has allowed several international
humanitarian organizations to conduct daily humanitarian flights to
Mekelle.





Unfortunately, until Wednesday (March 30), 43 WFP trucks loaded with
food items were not able to enter the Tigray region due to the closure
of the Aba’ala Road by the TPLF militants. Up until today, the militants
have continued their aggression against neighboring regions. Aside from
blocking the Aba’ala humanitarian corridor, people in the TPLF occupied
areas are suffering at the hands of the militants. More than 300, 000
people are displaced just recently. The United States Chargé d’Affaires
in Ethiopia, Ambassador Tracey Jacobson, was in Semera, Afar Region
yesterday and met with the Afar Regional President,  Awol Arba, members
of several Afar region-based youth organizations and clan leaders to
hear firsthand about the region’s concerns and needs. One of the major
concerns of the regions is the withdrawal of the TPLF militants from
occupied areas in Afar, which the federal government, in announcing the
Humanitarian truce last week demanded, to ensure the implementation of
the truce.





As a statement by the Government Communication Service revealed
yesterday, 21 WFP trucks are heading to Tigray loaded with much-needed
humanitarian aid, including fuel. The statement reaffirmed the
Government’s commitment to employing every means to facilitate
humanitarian support to the Tigray region. And yet, representatives of
the TPLF militant group, stating lack of aid within hours of the
declaration of the humanitarian truce, are claiming that the government
has failed respect its words. They even declared that the truce was made
to mislead the international community. None of these allegations are
true.





The government of Ethiopia has been making repeated calls on the
Tigray militants to refrain from citing various reasons and obstruct the
humanitarian flow by disseminating misleading information. The
Ethiopian government rather called on the militants to carry out
responsibilities on their part and facilitate the supply of aid to the
people of Tigray. The Government of Ethiopia also urged the
international community to put pressure on the TPLF to reciprocate the
humanitarian truce setting unsubstantiated allegations aside. 





*******************





Ethiopia has begun repatriating citizens from Saudi Arabia





Ethiopia has begun repatriating Ethiopian citizens from the Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia on Wednesday (March 30). It is estimated that there are
about 750,000 Ethiopians living in Saudi Arabia. Of these, 450,000 are
reported to have entered Saudi Arabia without proper documentation. At
least 102,000 Ethiopian are currently being held in various detention
centers across the country.





Our citizens are being held in overcrowded prisons and detention
centers in Riyadh and Jeddah, and in places where basic needs are not
met, they are suffering from disease, food and clothing shortages,
psychological trauma and physical harm. The Ethiopian government has set
up a national executive committee, under the chairmanship of Deputy
Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Demeke Mekonnen, to repatriate those
citizens gradually.





The committee which comprises 16 government agencies has prepared and
implemented a plan of action to guide the repatriation process,
including the rehabilitation of the returnees. In its preliminary work,
the committee undertook important activities such as compiling
comprehensive data, implementing procedures, and document preparation.





Some members of the committee have twice visited Saudi Arabia and
held talks with Saudi officials. Preparations for hosting the returnees
were made with the establishment of makeshift centers and the provision
of accommodation, including food, beverages, basic necessities, and
transportation.





2011 Ethiopians have arrived in Addis Ababa so far, comprising women
and children on the first flights. High-level government officials
welcomed the returnees at Bole International Airport. Speaking at the
event, State Minister for Foreign Affairs and member of the National
Executive Committee, Ambassador Birtukan Ayano, said the plan to
repatriate citizens has been successfully implemented noting the
encouraging move in making the first returnees women and children.





In her remarks, Ambassador Birtukan Ayano said the repatriation
process is a sign that the government is using its full potential to
repatriate those in need. She also called on the parties involved in the
repatriation process to make the process as flawless as possible. She
said three flights a day, three days a week are set aside to repatriate
citizens within six months.





Various discussions have been made with senior government officials
of Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to protect the rights of
Ethiopian citizens who have proper documentation to live and work in
Saudi Arabia. There have also been deliberations to ease conditions for
illegal migrants gathered in prisons and detention centers in Saudi
Arabia alongside talks of repatriation and cooperation to tackle the
root causes of illegal migration.





*******************





Peace and Security: the new arena for China-Horn cooperation





During a visit to Eritrea a month ago, China’s Foreign Minister Wang
Yi announced the surprising news that Beijing would assign a new peace
and security envoy exclusively for the Horn of Africa (HOA). The
announcement was framed as “Initiative of Peaceful Development in the
Horn of Africa,” according to Wang.





A special Chinese envoy stationed in the Horn of Africa is not a
novel concept. Ambassador Liu Guijin was designated as special envoy for
African issues in 2007 and was promptly dispatched to Sudan to assist
in the resolution of the Darfur conflict.





Peace and stability in Horn Africa contribute a lot to the stability
of international growth and trade, which China depends on. Aside from
advancing mutual needs for economic growth, the decision of the Chinese
government to appoint a special envoy to the region reaffirms China’s
commitment to play a more strategic role as a security actor on the
continent, building on its growing experience in conflict resolution and
contributions to multilateral peacekeeping and mediation efforts.





The new envoy would give Beijing an extra layer of coordination and
communication with the various actors in the Horn. This is an
opportunity for relevant African diplomats to take advantage of and use
the special envoy to address, leverage, and negotiate their points of
view with China.





The envoy’s first duty is to strengthen and diversify China’s
regional influence in the Horn of Africa and East Africa by hosting a
peace conference this year. The idea is to assist regional countries in
resolving their problems on their own. Despite the fact that it is a
Chinese initiative, Bing stated that the regional countries will take
the lead and be the primary actors. Beijing is scheduled to present
ideas on security, development, and governance at the meeting.





Countries in the Horn of Africa have praised the Chinese initiative.
Ambassador Xue Bing noted at the conclusion of his first trip that the
Horn of Africa has long been subjected to external intrusions. “Some
countries in this region are tired of foreign involvement,” he said at a
press conference at the Chinese Embassy in Nairobi, adding, “They claim
that China respects us and treats us as equals and that they want to
see China take a more active and constructive role in the world. As a
result, we must respond to the call from our friends here”.





The Chinese government has been successful in outclassing Africa’s
traditional allies such as the U.S. and Europe in the economic arena,
and as things appear now china is also eying to put its fingerprints on
peace and security issues. The conflict in the northern part of
Ethiopia, the Ethiopia-Sudan border case, issues related to elections in
Somalia, the implementation of the South Sudan peace deal, and the
political crisis in Sudan following Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok’s
resignation, among others, may preoccupy the Chinese special envoy. 





*******************





Ethiopia participates in the 8th TICAD Ministerial Meeting





State Minister of the Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia,  Ambassador Redwan
Hussien, has participated in the 8th Ministerial meeting of Tokyo
International Conference on African Development (TICAD). The two-day
online Ministerial meeting is chaired by  HAYASHI Yoshimasa, Minister
for Foreign Affairs of Japan.





In his remarks, Ambassador Redwan appreciated the commitment of Japan
to cooperate with African countries under TICAD and with Ethiopia, in
particular, under Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and
Quality and Productivity Improvement (Kaizen) projects.





He also appreciated the government of Japan for providing COVID-19
vaccines to Ethiopia, further stressing the need to increase economic
support given the straining pressure of the pandemic on African
economies.





The Ambassador explained encouraging steps taken to transform the
economy in Ethiopia under the Home Grown Economic reform and the 10-year
economic plan further calling Japan for sustained support.





Besides stressing the need to cementing Africa-Japan ties in trade,
investment, technology transfer, and human development, Ambassador
Redwan called on Japan to work with Africa in concretizing aspirations
for sustainable peace and development under Agenda 2063.





Participants, including Foreign Ministers from African countries,
will deliberate priority issues for African development looking ahead to
the post-COVID-19 era based on the three pillars; Economy, Society, and
Peace and Stability.




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